DAOD 8009-1, Canadian Forces Diving - Organization and Operating Principles
Date of Issue: 2006-09-22
Application: This DAOD is a directive that applies to employees of the Department of National Defence ("DND employees") and an order that applies to officers and non-commissioned members of the Canadian Forces ("CF members").
Supersession: CFAO 43-2, Diving - Organization, Responsibilities and Administrative Instructions
Approval Authority: This DAOD is issued under the authority of the Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS).
Enquiries: Director of Diving Safety (D Dive S)
- CF Diver (plongeur militaire)
- CF diver means a diver qualified in any sub-category of CF diving, whether a member of a CF diving team or a CF member who is maintaining currency and qualification through casual diving with a CF diving team.
- CF Diving (plongée militaire)
- CF diving means diving using underwater breathing apparatus, as well as the use by CF divers of hyperbaric chambers and other forms of underwater intervention, including remotely-operated underwater vehicles, submersibles and related special sensors.
- CF Diving Team (équipe de plongeurs militaires)
- CF diving team means an organizational sub-unit identified in command orders that is authorized to conduct CF diving, meets the standards set out in the Canadian Forces Diving Manual and is recognized by D Dive S.
- Sub-Specialist CF diver (plongeur militaire sous-spécialiste)
- Sub-specialist CF diver means a CF diver in one or more of the sub-categories of CF diving for whom diving is not a core job component or duty area as described in military occupation structure documentation.
CF Diver Selection and Training
Entry into any category of CF diving is voluntary and subject to a process consisting of screening and qualification stages. Screening for medical, psychological and physical suitability varies according to the qualification sought.
The diving environment is inherently hazardous. In addition to being physically and mentally demanding, a CF diver's tasks are prone to significant risk. These facts are mandatory considerations, both for candidates and those recommending or selecting volunteers for CF diving training and employment.
Safety is maintained by means of thorough training, regular practice and compliance with safety orders, which are promulgated in the Canadian Forces Diving Manual ("the Diving Manual") and Diving General Memoranda (DGM).
As identified in the respective diving course documentation, the CF training agencies authorized to conduct CF diving training are the:
- Fleet Diving Unit (Atlantic) (FDU (A));
- Fleet Diving Unit (Pacific) (FDU (P)); and
- Army Dive Centre (ADC).
Selection and training requirements can be found in:
- A-PD-055-002/ PP-001, CF Manual of Officers' Occupation Specifications for Clearance Diving Officer, Maritime Surface Officers Classification (MARS 71D);
- A-PD-055-002/PP-002, CF Manual of Non-Commissioned Member's Occupational Specifications for Clearance Diver (CL Diver), Search and Rescue Technicians (SAR) and Port Inspection Divers (PID);
- A-PD-055-003/PQ-001, CF Manual of Occupational Specialty Specifications for Ship's Divers and Combat Divers; and
- B-GL-361-007/FP-001, Combat Diving.
Medical and Physical Fitness Requirements - Selection
Prior to final selection for initial assignment to a CF diving sub-specialty or military occupation, all candidates shall:
- be examined in accordance with the Canadian Forces Medical Order (CFMO) 27-07, Canadian Forces Diver Medical Examination Standards or the Medical Service Instruction (MSI CF) on CF diver medical standards;
- meet the medical standard prescribed in Annex A to A-MD-154-000/FP-000, Medical Standards for the Canadian Forces; and
- show current proof of meeting the CF diver physical fitness standards in accordance with the CF Exercise Prescription (EXPRES) program, DAOD 5023-2, Physical Fitness Program.
All diving candidates shall also undergo a pressure tolerance test in accordance with the relevant CFMO, Canadian Forces Diver Medical Examination Standards, or MSI CF, before commencing training and shall not be considered for further diving training if they are unable to pass this test.
Note - Because a superior level of fitness is required, commanding officers (COs) of both CF divers and diving candidates shall ensure that adequate time is allocated for physical fitness training. The CF EXPRES standards should be used as the guide to meeting this requirement.
A qualified diving medical officer (DMO), appointed by a command surgeon, shall conduct diving medical examinations and ensure CF divers are immunized in accordance with the relevant CFMO, Canadian Forces Diver Medical Examination Standards, or MSI CF. Command surgeons may issue directives and procedural requirements to authorize other physicians to perform this examination where DMOs are not available.
An initial diving medical examination is valid for one year. However, a DMO shall review diving medical examinations that are over six months old and update them if clinically indicated.
A DMO shall conduct a complete diving medical examination on a qualified CF diver every two years. However, a diver actively involved in saturation or experimental diving requires a complete diving medical examination every year. Type 2 Diver Health Examination Screening shall also be conducted every two years, on alternate years to the complete diving medical examination.
All candidates selected for clearance diving training shall undergo a full clearance diving medical and be medically approved by the Consultant in Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine at the Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) Toronto, Experimental Diving and Undersea Group (EDU Grp) before commencing the clearance diving course.
Dental examinations are required annually for all CF divers.
CF Course Reports
Form CF 377, CF Course Report, shall be submitted in accordance with DAOD 5031-9, Course Reporting and Certificates, for all candidates who attend any CF diving course.
The course report shall include a notation concerning entitlement to casual diving allowance under Compensation and Benefits Instructions (CBI) 205.345, Casual Diving Allowance, if applicable, during the period the candidate is in training.
Upon receipt of the course report from the authorized training agency, the candidate's parent unit shall carry out the necessary Unit Personnel Data Transaction (UPDT) action.
In general, CF divers are entitled to receive an allowance based upon their status as:
- qualified and current members of a CF diving team;
- casual CF divers maintaining their diving currency or proficiency while not assigned to a CF diving team; or
- CF diver trainees.
CFAO 205-25, Environmental Allowances amplifies instructions pertaining to the following allowances which CF divers may be entitled to receive:
- the diving allowance, as prescribed in CBI 205.34, Diving Allowance; and
- the casual diving allowance, as prescribed in CBI 205.345, Casual Diving Allowance.
Re-qualification and Recertification
Sub-specialist CF divers are required to update their qualifications every three years by attending a CF diving re-qualification course. In extenuating circumstances, the environmental command authority may extend the requirement by a further year. CF divers for whom diving is a core job component or duty area, in accordance with their occupation specifications, do not require a re-qualification course, but shall maintain skills as stated in the Reconfirmation of Diving Skills block.
Procedures for recertification of members whose qualifications have been rescinded or have otherwise lapsed are found in Volume 2, Organization, Regulations, Rules and Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus Diving (CABA) of the Diving Manual B-GG-380-000/FP-002, Canadian Forces Diving Manual.
Rescinding of Qualification
Unless waived by the operational level headquarters (OLHQ) or formation command HQ, the unit CO shall rescind the qualifications of any of the following who fail to meet requirements in accordance with the Diving Manual, Volume 2:
- Ship's Team Diving Officer;
- Ship's Team Diver;
- Ship's Team Diver Supervisor;
- Combat Diving Officer;
- Combat Diver; and
- Combat Diver Supervisor.
Reconfirmation of Diving Skills
The CO of a CF diving team shall ensure that all necessary facilities are provided for the proper training and exercise of all divers under command. Because of the diverse array of life support systems and procedures utilized by CF divers, proficiency and skill in any specific diving system degrades rapidly without regular practice. CF divers who may have been assigned to duties away from any particular diving system shall not resume their duties in that system until they have refreshed and reconfirmed their skills.
In cases where no order exists in the Diving Manual for a specific work-up in a particular diving system, the CO shall promulgate local standard operating procedures (SOPs) and policies to ensure divers' skills are refreshed, and that their re-confirmations are properly recorded upon completion.
Conduct of Diving Operations
The orders governing the conduct of CF diving during operations, exercises and training are detailed in the seven volumes of the Diving Manual.
All personnel concerned with CF diving shall make themselves thoroughly conversant with the Diving Manual, Volumes 1 and 2.
All personnel involved in diving operations using diving systems other than those covered in the Diving Manual, Volume 2, shall also be thoroughly conversant with Volumes 3, 4 and 5 as applicable.
The scope of the program at the EDU Grp includes research, development, testing, evaluation, investigation and quality assurance functions. The research and experimentation carried out at the EDU Grp supports all aspects of CF diving. The officer in command (OIC) of the EDU Grp, as Chair of the Diving Thrust Advisory Group, determines EDU Grp program priorities. Requests or taskings originated by CF diving authorities, such as D Dive S, Director Maritime Requirement Sea (DMRS) or Director Maritime Ship Support (DMSS), that fall outside of the agreed Thrust program, will normally be accompanied by supplementary funding from the requesting authority. Examples of requests include accident and incident investigation, project definition, development of requirements, technical support and test or evaluation of off-the-shelf equipment.
The EDU Grp is authorized to employ all categories of CF, civilian or allied forces divers, as subjects in diving experiments approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC). Allied forces involvement is enabled under the auspices of standing agreements and memoranda of understanding (MOU). Except when deviations are necessitated by the conduct of HREC-approved experimental dives, the EDU Grp shall adhere to all orders, procedures and restrictions in accordance with the Diving Manual, and the 8009 series DAODs.
Diving Safety, Incident and Accident Reports
An important factor in the safety of CF divers is the analysis of accurate data recorded shortly after an actual or simulated dive in which injury has occurred or could have occurred owing to failure of equipment or procedure.
Orders governing the investigation and reporting of CF diving incidents and accidents are detailed in the Diving Manual, Volume 2. Diving hazards shall not be reported via other general safety reporting procedures.
D Dive S shall:
- investigate all diving incidents and accidents, some of which may require the assistance of an FDU or the EDU Grp for more detailed or forensic investigation of equipment;
- ensure CF diving safety investigations by other authorities meet acceptable standards; and
- communicate relevant data among related safety staffs at NDHQ.
D Dive S shall conduct an on-site safety investigation into all serious diving accidents, distinct from any ongoing Board of Inquiry or other local investigation, as detailed in the Diving Manual, Volume 2.
Diving Publications and Diving General Memoranda
The Diving Manual is distributed as a controlled publication via the CF Publication Depot. CF diving team holdings of the Diving Manual are strictly limited to ensure completeness and accuracy. Accordingly, personal copies are not authorized. While some volumes of this publication are also accessible on the D Dive S Intranet website, they are not authorized as a substitute for the printed copies.
D Dive S acts as the regulatory authority for CF diving and promulgates the Diving Manuals and DGM under the authority of the CDS. DGM primarily distribute diving safety information quickly to all CF diving authorities and CF diving teams who shall:
- maintain a current file of effective DGM; and
- provide their DGM file for verification of completeness during annual technical and administrative diving inspections.
DGM are distributed to the appropriate address indicating groups (AIG) for CF diving authorities and CF diving teams, by message or letter as applicable, and are also accessible on the D Dive S Intranet website. D Dive S is the authority for the DGM AIGs.
To ensure the maintenance of promulgated standards, D Dive S conducts a two-part annual inspection program consisting of:
- an Administration and Safety Inspection; and
- a Technical and Maintenance Inspection.
This inspection program is applicable to all CF diving teams.
D Dive S is assisted by the FDUs for the technical and maintenance part of the annual inspections, within their area of responsibility (AOR). For the purpose of inspections, CF diving teams are assigned to either the Eastern or Western AOR, the division falling at the border between the provinces of Manitoba and Ontario. Inspection requirements, encompassing administration, safety, organization and materiel are fully detailed in the Diving Manual, Volume 2.
FDUs shall report the results of all annual Technical and Maintenance Inspections to D Dive S. Following an analysis of the reports, D Dive S shall communicate its assessment of the inspection results to each CF diving team by letter. Unless otherwise authorized by D Dive S, a "SATISFACTORY" assessment must be achieved for a CF diving team to continue diving.
D Dive S may grant an extension of up to six months beyond the anniversary of the last Administration and Safety Inspection, when justified by extenuating circumstances, such as operational deployment or a ship's refit. Extensions more than one month past the anniversary of the previous Technical and Maintenance Inspection require the approval of the Life Cycle Materiel Manager (LCMM), who shall consult with D Dive S as required by the circumstances.
Diving operational readiness standards and practical diving evaluations are the responsibility of the respective chain of command.
All CF diving teams shall record, report and maintain up to date records of both individual diver and team activities. All exposures to the hyperbaric environment shall be carefully logged, to provide a record of individual physiological exposures over the career of each member as well as an indication of each member's experience, training and proficiency. Accordingly, non-CF diving and hyperbaric environment exposures (e.g. civilian sport diving and CF recreational SCUBA Club diving) may be included in the logs, provided the sport or recreational nature of the exposures is clearly indicated in the records.
Diving Records and Reports
The following logs and reports shall be used and completed in accordance with the Diving Manual, Volume 2 and applicable directives and orders:
- Form CF 849, Diver's Log is issued to all CF divers and shall include details of each dive or exposure to increased pressure, as well as personal data. Quarterly, the CO shall inspect and sign the logs of all divers on the Unit Diving Roster. The format of this log is set out in the Diving Manual, Volume 2;
- Form CF 850, Monthly Diving Record is used to record monthly diving activity by all CF ships, bases, wings, units, teams, etc. employing CF divers. Quarterly, the CO shall inspect and sign form CF 850, Monthly Diving Record. The format of this record is set out in the Diving Manual, Volume 2;
- Dive Supervisor's Log/Worksheet is used to record all data of every dive conducted. Information from these logs is used to complete the CF 849, Diver's Log and CF 850, Monthly Diving Record. The Dive Supervisors Log/Worksheet shall be retained for five years before disposal or archiving. The format of this log/worksheet is set out in the Diving Manual, Volume 2;
- Quarterly reports are used by OLHQs and formation HQs to track diving
activity trends, compliance with safety standards and to assess operational
readiness of all CF diving teams under their command. Due to the different
nature and varying requirements of each HQ, local command orders and directives
shall outline the format and extent of activities to be reported. D Dive S uses
data extracted from these reports to maintain the National Diving Safety
Database. Accordingly, at least quarterly, formation level commands shall make
this information available to D Dive S, including the:
- team identification;
- number of divers in the team;
- total number of dives of all divers; and
- total hours achieved by the team.
CF diving equipment means all equipment that is used in direct support of CF diving, whether life support critical (LSC) or ancillary. LSC components are those that, if they were to fail, would immediately jeopardize the health or safety of a CF diver. All other diving equipment is considered ancillary.
CF diving equipment includes a CF diver's personal scale of issue, equipment as listed in CF diving team equipment check lists (ECL), all related hyperbaric life support equipment such as recompression chambers, compressors, gas storage and supply systems, as well as underwater (UW) communications equipment, vessels and materiel handling equipment used in direct support of CF diving.
CF diving equipment that is LSC (e.g. hyperbaric life support equipment) must be operated and maintained meticulously. Because ancillary diving equipment may, under some circumstances, be critical to the health and safety of a CF diver, such equipment shall also be operated and maintained to the highest standards. While this principle applies to all CF diving equipment, implementation of equipment policy and CF diving team practices differ considerably between LSC equipment and ancillary diving equipment.
CF diving equipment shall be supported by:
- development, testing and evaluation by the EDU Grp and field units;
- operator and maintainer documentation and training; and
- maintenance instructions and life cycle management.
All proposals for changes to entitlement and new equipment shall incorporate:
- development, testing and evaluation;
- training; and
- maintenance planning, as appropriate.
All LSC equipment in the CF inventory shall fully satisfy these requirements. All new ancillary diving equipment proposals shall address these requirements in the planning stage. The involvement of the EDU Grp and field units in development, testing, evaluation and related activities shall be in accordance with applicable policy and directives.
On successful completion of initial qualification courses, divers shall be issued supporting diving equipment in accordance with scale CFS-1 D01-312 - Clothing and Equipment - Personal Loan Issue - CF Divers.
CF members, whose diving qualifications have been rescinded, shall return their supporting diving equipment to the closest supply organization.
Authorized scales of issue and ECLs are set out in A-LM-181-001/JS-001, Standard Supply Instructions. Changes to entitlement are addressed in the Requirements block. FDU schools are authorized to issue diving and related equipment in accordance with scale CFS-1 D01-409 - Protective Clothing - Diving Establishment. The EDU Grp is authorized to issue diving and related equipment in accordance with scale CFS-1 D09-121 - Equipment - Canadian Experimental Diving Division.
All diving equipment shall be tested, repaired and maintained in accordance with the appropriate Canadian Forces Technical Order (CFTO). If there is no CFTO for the equipment concerned, the LCMM may authorize CF divers and diving equipment maintainers to comply with the manufacturer's recommendations for maintenance, until a CFTO is promulgated. Divers and maintainers shall report to their superiors any high pressure diving components, equipment or systems that lack either CF or manufacturer's maintenance documentation, for further investigation.
The FDUs, the EDU Grp and clearance divers on staff at Dwyer Hill Training Centre (DHTC) are authorized to oversee and conduct all levels of maintenance, as approved by the LCMM and D Dive S. Other user units are only authorized to carry out limited maintenance of diving breathing apparatus or high-pressure systems. Such limited maintenance is generally restricted to first line maintenance, unless otherwise provided for in the Diving Manual or applicable CFTOs.
Units shall return defective or suspect diving equipment to the appropriate FDU for inspection, maintenance and repair. Unless otherwise directed by an appropriate diving authority, this return shall be conducted in accordance with instructions found in A-LM-181-001/JS-001, Standard Supply Instructions, to facilitate efficient replenishment action.
Breathing Air and Gases Purity
All compressed breathing air and gases intended for diving purposes are subject to strict quality and testing standards. The CF standard required for the purity of compressed breathing air and gases, supplied from pressurized containers or from compressors, intended for human respiration UW or in hyperbaric chambers, is detailed in CFTO D-87-003-000/SG-001, Purity of Compressed Breathing Air and Gases for Divers.
Samples of breathing air shall be processed for testing in accordance with CFTO C-87-020-001/NG-001, Special Test Instructions Diver's Breathing Air Analysis, at an interval not to exceed every six months so that purity may be confirmed.
All breathing gases shall be tested to ensure compliance with CF standards and documentation of the test results shall be maintained at user units or CF supply outlets as appropriate. Non-CF compressed breathing air and gases shall only be used in accordance with orders in the Diving Manual and as implemented under international agreements such as NATO standardization agreements (STANAGs).
The following table identifies responsibilities for the control and conduct of CF diving and diving training:
|The …||is/are responsible for …|
D Dive S
Health Hazards Group (HHG) at DRDC Toronto
Director Maritime Health Services (DMH Svcs)
Director Maritime Policy Operations and Readiness (DMPOR 4-3)
Staff Officer Diving, Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) and Mine Warfare - MARLANT and MARPAC
FDU (A) and FDU (P)
Naval Reserve HQ Quebec
Naval Reserve Regional Diving Centers & Teams
OPI Army Diving (Commandant CF School of Military Engineering)
LFC Diving Teams
A3 Search and Rescue (SAR) Tech
Transport and Rescue Standards Evaluations Team (TRSET)
SAR Diving Teams
1 Canadian Air Division (1 Cdn Air Div)
- DAOD 8009-0, Canadian Forces Diving
- B-GG-380-000/FP-002, Canadian Forces Diving Manual, Volume 2, Organization, Regulations, Rules and Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus Diving (CABA)
- CFMO 27-07, Canadian Forces Diver Medical Examination Standards
- CBI 205.34, Diving Allowance
- CBI 205.345, Casual Diving Allowance
- DAOD 5023-2, Physical Fitness Program
- DAOD 5031-9, Course Reporting and Certificates
- DAOD 5061-0, Research Involving Human Subjects
- DAOD 8000-0, Explosive Ordnance Disposal
- DAOD 8000-1, Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) - Instructions
- CFAO 205-25, Environmental Allowances
- CFMO 29-12, Emergency Medical Information Medic Alert & Warning Devices
- CFS-1 D01-312 - Clothing and Equipment - Personal Loan Issue - CF Divers
- CFS-1 D01-409 - Protective Clothing - Diving Establishment
- CFS-1 D09-121 - Equipment - Canadian Experimental Diving Division
- CFTO C-87-020-001/NG-001, Special Test Instructions Diver's Breathing Air Analysis
- CFTO D-87-003-000/SG-001, Purity of Compressed Breathing Air and Gases for Divers
- A-LM-181-001/JS-001, Standard Supply Instructions
- A-MD-154-000/FP-000, Medical Standards for the Canadian Forces, Annex A
- A-PD-055-002/ PP-001, CF Manual of Officers' Occupation Specifications for Clearance Diving Officer, Maritime Surface Officers Classification ((00207 MARS (71D))
- A-PD-055-002/PP-002, CF Manual of Non-Commissioned Member's Occupational Specifications for Clearance Diver (CL Diver), Search and Rescue Technicians (SAR) and Port Inspection Divers (PID);
- A-PD-055-003/PQ-001, CF Manual of Occupational Specialty Specifications for Ship's Divers and Combat Divers
- B-GG-380-000/FP-001, Canadian Forces Diving Manual, Volume 1, History, Physics and Physiology
- B-GG-380-000/FP-003, Canadian Forces Diving Manual, Volume 3, Surface Supplied Breathing Apparatus (SSBA)
- B-GG-380-000/FP-004, Canadian Forces Diving Manual, Volume 4, Self Contained Mixed Gas Diving
- B-GG-380-000/FP-005, Canadian Forces Diving Manual, Volume 5, Hyperbaric Chamber - Operation and Treatment Procedures
- B-GG-380-000/FP-006, Canadian Forces Diving Manual, Volume 6, Diving Supervisor's Handbook
- B-GG-380-000/FP-007, Canadian Forces Diving Manual, Volume 7, Aide-mémoire du Superviseur de Plongée
- B-GL-361-007/FP-001, Combat Diving
- MARCORD 9-12, Diving Training & Administration, Naval Reserves
- MARCORD 46-500, Diving - Operational
- MARCORD 46-501, OSQ Fleet Diving Courses
- Naval Diving Operational Concept of Employment 2004
- One Canadian Air Division (1 Cdn Air Div) Orders, Volume 5
- Form CF 377, CF Course Report
- Form CF 849, Diver's Log
- Form CF 850, Monthly Diving Record