DAOD 1000-2, Communicating Direction in the DND and the CF
Date of Issue: 1999-11-15
Application: This is an order that applies to members of the Canadian Forces (CF) and a directive that applies to employees of the Department of National Defence (DND).
- CFAO 4-3, Command Orders
- CFAO 4-8, Routine Orders
Approval Authority: This DAOD is issued under the authority of the Director Strategic Corporate Services (DSCS).
Enquiries: Legislative and Regulatory Services (LRS), Office of the Legal Advisor for the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces
- Administrative Instructions (instructions administratives)
- Administrative instructions explain how the goals articulated in DND and CF administrative policies are to be attained. These instructions may be expressed graphically or in text and may include such information as operating principles, processes, procedures and standards.
- Administrative Policy (politique administrative)
- An administrative policy states the over-arching DND and CF position on a specific topic. It establishes the bounds within which the organization will operate and clearly articulates the goals that should be attained. As such, administrative policy provides guidance for related management decisions and actions.
- Defence Administrative Orders and Directives (DAODs) (Directives et ordonnances administratives de la Défense (DOAD))
- Defence Administrative Orders and Directives (DAODs) are the documents that spell out corporate administrative policies and instructions that are specific to the DND and CF. DAODs supplement higher level direction such as Acts of the Parliament of Canada and Queen’s Regulations and Orders (QR&Os). They may also supplement directives from Treasury Board and/or other central agencies. Orders apply to CF members; directives apply to DND employees.
The DND and the CF have communicated direction to employees and members through a broad range of instruments and media which include:
- permanent collections, such as Canadian Forces Administrative Orders (CFAOs), Queen's Regulations and Orders for the Canadian Forces (QR&Os), etc;
- direction that is transitory and/or has a specific/limited-application, such as Canadian Forces General (CANFORGEN) messages, Routine Orders (ROs), memoranda, bulletins, newsletters, and manuals.
On occasion, some of them have been used inappropriately.
In order for DND employees and CF members to follow the intended direction, they must know where to find what they need. As such, it is important to understand the DND and CF policy framework - how and when to use what instruments - so that administrative policy and instruction can be accessed and distinguished from other kinds of information.
Principles for Effective Use of Instruments
Three principles for ensuring effective communication of direction are:
- selecting the appropriate target audience;
- ensuring accessibility; and
- avoiding repetition.
Instruments that communicate direction should contain direction specific to a target audience. Knowing the target audience will help determine:
- the type and depth of information to be contained; and
- where to look for the information they need.
- QR&Os contain direction to CF members;
- DAODs contain direction to CF members and/or DND employees; and
- Maritime Command Orders (MARCORDs) contain direction to Naval personnel.
Instruments that communicate direction must be readily accessible to their target audience.
In order to ensure that such instruments are effective and enforceable, commanding officers and managers shall take the necessary steps to draw them to the attention of - and make them available to - those to whom they apply.
Note - To ensure accessibility of historical information, copies of all earlier issues of instruments must be maintained in accordance with governmental and departmental policy.
By avoiding repetition of direction from one instrument to another, the possibility of conflict or confusion between documents can be managed effectively and minimized.
Instruments that communicate direction should avoid repeating information that is contained elsewhere, and they should only be introduced when there is an identified need to:
- supplement and/or amplify policy and instruction, as set out in higher level or other direction, in a context that is specific to their target audience; and/or
- set out policy and instruction that is consistent with other direction.
- Canadian Forces Medical Orders (CFMOs) should, for the specific needs of medical staff, amplify, but not repeat policy and instruction contained in CFAOs and DAODs; and
- Air Command Orders (ACOs) should, for the specific needs of Air Force personnel, amplify, but not repeat information contained in higher level direction such as QR&Os, CFAOs, or DAODs.
Instruments Used in the DND and the CF
The following table provides examples of the various instruments in which direction applicable to the DND and the CF may be found.
|Legislation (Acts and Regulations)||
|International Treaties, Conventions and Protocols signed and ratified by the Government of Canada||
|Central Agency Policies||
|Corporate Administrative Orders and Directives||
|Area-specific Orders and Directives||
|Administrative and Technical Manuals||
Acts and Regulations
Certain government processes result in the promulgation of legislation - Acts and Regulations - some of which set out authorities and determine limitations of action for the DND and/or the CF.
Acts which directly affect the DND and/or the CF include:
- Constitution Act - Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
- The Access to Information Act
- The Privacy Act
- The Financial Administration Act
- The Official Languages Act
Regulations which directly affect the DND and/or the CF include:
- Government Contracting Regulations
- Defence Materiel Loan Regulations
- Government Property Traffic Regulations
Accordance of Corporate Direction
All corporate direction, including administrative orders and directives must be consistent with direction set out in any applicable Acts and Regulations.
Central agencies set direction and support for the conduct of the business of government as a whole. Administrative policies set by central agencies direct departmental activities including, where stipulated, those of the DND and the CF.
Central agencies whose policy and direction often affect the DND and/or the CF include:
- The Privy Council Office (PCO);
- The Treasury Board Secretariat (TBS);
- The Public Service Commission (PSC); and
- Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC).
Accordance of Corporate Direction
All corporate direction, including administrative orders and directives, must be consistent with any applicable direction provided by central agencies.
Canada is legally bound to fulfil its obligations under International Law. The most readily identifiable sources of such obligations are international treaties, conventions, protocols or other international instruments to which Canada is a party. Canada is also legally bound by Customary International Law (CIL). CIL comprises internationally recognized rules and principles that are binding on Canada.
Some of Canada's obligations under International Law have significant implications for the DND and/or the CF.
International instruments, signed and ratified by Canada, that directly affect the DND and/or the CF include:
- The Charter of the United Nations;
- The North Atlantic Treaty;
- The NATO Status of Forces Agreement
- Conventions and protocols dealing with armed conflict such as the 1949 Geneva Conventions and their 1977 Additional Protocols;
- Conventions dealing with disarmament such as the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe; and
- The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
Role of National Defence Headquarters
An important role of National Defence Headquarters (NDHQ) is to ensure that legislation, regulations, government-wide policies, practices and guidelines are followed in the management of the DND and the CF.
The following blocks provide an overview of how this role is achieved.
Deputy Minister and Chief of the Defence Staff Responsibilities
As the Minister of National Defence's principal advisors, the Deputy Minister (DM) and the Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) are the providers of day-to-day oversight of the DND and the CF, respectively. In broad terms, the DM is responsible for:
- international defence relations;
and the CDS is responsible for:
- command, control, and administration of the CF; and
- military strategy, plans and requirements.
Because of the integrated nature of NDHQ, some functions and authorities are shared by the DM and CDS.
DAOD 1000-0, Corporate Administrative Direction, establishes the delegation of authority from the DM and CDS to the Assistant Deputy Minister (Finance and Corporate Services)(ADM (Fin CS)) for the coordination and maintenance of corporate administrative direction in the DND and the CF.
For a further breakdown of delegated authorities related to corporate administrative direction, see the section "Authority" in DAOD 1000-0, Corporate Administrative Direction.
Corporate Administrative Direction
Corporate administrative direction currently consists of such collections as CFAOs, CPAOs, DAODs, and NDHQ Instructions and Directives.
Many CFAOs, CPAOs, and NDHQ Instructions and Directives remain in effect; however, the direction provided in them will be reviewed, renewed, and converted into DAODs. DAODs will eventually replace all corporate administrative policy direction currently contained in these collections.
DAODs are the instruments through which corporate administrative direction of general application to the DND and/or the CF is promulgated. Consequently, they must be readily accessible to all members and employees, in electronic or paper format.
Orders and directives contained in the DAOD collection are subject to those Acts, Regulations, International Treaties, Conventions and Protocols signed and ratified by Canada, and Central Agency policy and direction that govern the relevant subject matters.
DAODs supplement and/or amplify these instruments where specific direction for the DND and/or the CF is required.
What Belongs in a DAOD
There are two kinds of DAODs, policy and instructional. The table below provides examples of the type of direction to be placed in a policy or instructional DAOD.
|In a/an...||you would state and/or find...|
the overarching DND and CF position on a specific topic.
Example: "CF members and DND employees shall ensure the security of classified and designated information and material."
direction that explains how the goals articulated in the administrative policy are to be attained.
What Does Not Belong in a DAOD
A DAOD should not normally contain:
- description of a unit's role, command and control relationships, support services relationships or channels of communication. Such information belongs in a Canadian Forces Organization Order (CFOO); or
- direction that is internal to a particular organization. Such information belongs in Terms of Reference (TORs) or Standing Operating Procedures (SOPs).
When to Use DAODs
Corporate administrative policy and instruction needed by DND employees and/or CF members to perform their jobs are, for the most part, contained in the DAOD collection.
Generally speaking, when DND employees and/or CF members have a question regarding "why are we doing this," "how things work" or "what do I need to do," the DAOD collection should be the first place to look for guidance.
As a general rule, you need a DAOD if:
- the policy or direction is permanent; and
- the policy or direction found in a statute or regulation is not specific in its applicability to the DND and the CF.
If the direction does not meet these criteria, other instruments should be considered to communicate it.
When the direction does not meet the criteria for a DAOD, other instruments are available. While these instruments may still provide direction binding on CF members and DND employees, they are more appropriate for getting the information to those who need it. They include:
- area-specific orders and directives, including base and unit orders and directives, ROs, etc.;
- administrative and technical manuals; and
- other means of communication.
Area-specific Orders and Directives
Area-specific orders and directives normally detail policy and instruction needed by CF members and/or DND employees working within a specific Headquarters,Group, Command, base or unit.
The issuing authority shall determine the form and style of such publications.
Administrative and/or Technical Manuals
Administrative and technical manuals normally detail job-specific administrative and technical processes and procedures to be used by CF members and/or DND employees working in a specific field.
Examples of the types of direction to be placed in these publications are set out in the following table.
|In an...||such as...||you would state...|
Area-specific order or directive
Air Command Orders
direction specific to Air Force personnel.
Administrative or technical manual
Security Orders for the DND and the CF
direction specific to unit security officers and/or other people with specific responsibilities for security.
Routine Orders (ROs)
COs use ROs to communicate regulations, orders, instructions and general information to CF members and/or DND employees under their command.
COs of all Regular Force and Primary Reserve units shall publish ROs.
The frequency of publication is at the CO's discretion.
Form and Content
The following table provides guidelines for the production of ROs.
Each RO must be identified by:
Table of Contents
Each RO must have a table of contents.
Items for inclusion must be grouped into four parts:
Items must be identified with the:
ROs must be signed by or on behalf of the CO.
On a semi-annual or "as required" basis, COs shall publish master editions of ROs that:
- contain standing and repeat items;
- are to be retained and made available to personnel; and
- are to be referenced in current ROs.
Other Means of Communication
Some direction has been communicated through CANFORGENs, memoranda, letters, bulletins and newsletters, these instruments are a legitimate vehicle for temporary or non-permanent corporate direction. Also, these instruments may be used to announce, publicize, and/or inform rather than direct CF members and /or DND employees about permanent policies or instructions that are published in other appropriate instruments.
They should not be used to communicate permanent corporate administrative direction because:
- they are temporary;
- though the target audience may be all-inclusive, accessibility is not guaranteed; and
- they may repeat information contained in more appropriate and authoritative instruments.
- DAOD 1000-0, Corporate Administrative Direction
- Report to the Prime Minister: Authority, Responsibility and Accountability - 25 March 1997
- QR&O 1.12, Regulations and Orders to be Available to Members
- QR&O 1.21, Notification by Receipt of Regulations, Orders and Instructions
- QR&O 4.12, Command Orders
- QR&O 4.21, Standing Orders
- QR&O 4.26, Circulation of Regulations, Orders, Instructions, Correspondence and Publications
- DAOD 1000-1, Defence Administrative Orders and Directives (DAOD) Writing Guide